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Wind Resistance

Rhode Island’s Block Island Wind Farm was the first offshore wind project in the U.S. While most of the Great Lakes states have studied offshore wind potential, public opposition has staved off turbines for over a decade. Credit: U.S. Department of Energy
Dennis Schroeder
Rhode Island’s Block Island Wind Farm was the first offshore wind project in the U.S. While most of the Great Lakes states have studied offshore wind potential, public opposition has staved off turbines for over a decade. Credit: U.S. Department of Energy

There’s no shortage of wind blowing across the Great Lakes. Turning that wind into energy could be a big step towards lowering carbon emissions in the region. And despite plenty of studies showing vast energy potential, the Great Lakes still don’t have any offshore turbines.

That could soon change. A first-of-its-kind project has been approved for Lake Erie: six turbines, eight miles from the Cleveland shoreline. But it hasn’t come easy.

Public opposition is the biggest barrier to building wind turbines in the Great Lakes. A big reason why: people don’t like how they look.

The gales of November are a tremendous resource, and harnessing them could help slow down a warming climate. But how do you balance that against the value of an unimpeded view?

Producer: Patrick Shea
Host / Editor: Dan Wanschura
Additional Editing: Peter Payette, Ed Ronco
Music: Alex Figueira, Ketsa, Hans Troost

DAN WANSCHURA, HOST: The gales of November.

In the Great Lakes, this is a season of frequent storms and tall waves crashing against the shoreline. When these gale force winds blow across the water, some see untapped potential.

BRIAN ZATLOUKAL: This is our time to make money. When the winds show up, we’re ready to go.

WANSCHURA: Brian Zatloukal is with Consumers Energy.

At the Lake Winds Energy Park in Western Michigan, he monitors 56 wind turbines scattered across 35 square miles of rolling hills.

ZATLOUKAL: We’re going through an orchard currently…We’ve got apple, peach, pear, nectarine – those sorts of tree fruits.

WANSCHURA: The turbines rise high above these orchards. They’re almost 500 feet tall at the highest point of the blades.

Anytime the wind blows around seven miles per hour, those blades start turning. And when they do the turbines generate electricity that feeds into the grid through underground cables.

ZATLOUKAL: What really ends up happening on the grid is on high wind days you’ll see natural gas fuel generation plants back down and not fire as hard and generate as much power. You’ll see coal pants get turned down and not fire as hard. And the concept is that you’re displacing the fossil generation with a renewable asset generation.

WANSCHURA: Backing off those fossil fuels during high winds is a step towards Michigan’s goal for carbon emissions. The state wants its carbon emissions at net zero by 2050.

Five of the seven Great Lakes states have set similar goals. And here at the Lake Winds Energy Park, just a few miles from Lake Michigan, the conditions are really good for turning wind into energy.

Consumers Energy’s 56 turbines in Mason County can generate 100 megawatts of electricity in peak conditions. Credit: Patrick Shea / Interlochen Public Radio.
Consumers Energy’s 56 turbines in Mason County can generate 100 megawatts of electricity in peak conditions. Credit: Patrick Shea / Interlochen Public Radio.

ZATLOUKAL: Just geographically, with prevailing wind patterns, having that open space behind is a big deal. As you go inland, literally the roughness, if you will, of the earth tends to slow the wind speeds down. So terrain, trees, etcetera tend to slow it down.

WANSCHURA: One place totally free of those wind barriers is out in the open water. Offshore wind turbines are popping up in ocean waters off the east and west coasts. But why don’t we see any in the Great Lakes?

ZATLOUKAL: Is there a tremendous resource? No question. But people want – I don’t think – generally want to see them right now offshore, which is a challenge. We would have to change hearts and minds around that for sure.

WANSCHURA: This is Points North: A show about the land, water and inhabitants of the Upper Great Lakes. I’m Dan Wanschura.

Reporter Patrick Shea has been looking into offshore wind energy in the Great Lakes – its potential and its controversy. Patrick, let’s start with the potential.

PATRICK SHEA, BYLINE: Sure. So, If you live near the Great Lakes, it’s probably not news to you that there’s a lot of wind out there; especially this time of year. Now, obviously we’re not going to convert all of that wind to energy – but if we did, it would provide a huge portion of the electricity used in the Great Lakes States.

DAN WASNCHURA: Ok put that into context – how much electricity are we talking about here?

SHEA: A whole lot.

A report last year looked at expected electricity demands by 2050. Using data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, it found that in Wisconsin, there’s enough offshore wind to provide almost 30 percent of that demand. And in Michigan, it’s closer to two thirds.

WANSCHURA: Two thirds. Wow, that is a lot of energy. So again: why isn’t anybody capturing it? Why no turbines in the lakes?

SHEA: Well, they could be coming soon.

The first ever offshore wind project in the Great Lakes was officially approved this summer. It would be the first of its kind: six turbines located about 8 miles from Cleveland – right in the waters of Lake Erie.

But when it comes down to it, it’s hard to say exactly what the impact will be on birds before the wind turbines are actually in the lake.

It’s called the Icebreaker Wind Project, and it could pave the way for more wind turbines in the Great Lakes. But that’s the last thing some people want to hear.

Lake Erie could be home to the first offshore wind turbines in the waters of the Great Lakes. Credit: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Lake Erie could be home to the first offshore wind turbines in the waters of the Great Lakes. Credit: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

SHAREN TREMBATH: Mark my word. Once they put one in the water, it will just continue on and on and on until all the lakes are filled. They’re not gonna stop.

Sharen Trembath is from Evans, New York, about 20 miles south of Buffalo. She says she’s been defending Lake Erie for most of her life.

TREMBATH: I’m 77. When I was 16, my brothers and I helped stop the gill nets in Lake Erie. I’ve worked on the pharmaceuticals being dumped into the lake. I’ve worked on phosphates. We fought Proctor and Gamble back in 1989.

SHEA: For Sharen, protecting the lake doesn’t just mean trying to stop things from happening. It’s hands on, too.

TREMBATH: For the past 40 years I’ve been the Lake Erie Coordinator for the International Coastal Cleanup. I have 2,000 volunteers from Presque Isle, Pennsylvania up to Niagara Falls who clean up the shoreline every year. I call it the Great Lakes Beach Sweep. Ok, that’s my life.

SHEA: Sharen says all that activism comes from her lifelong relationship with the lake. She says living near Lake Erie has given her a deeper appreciation for the natural world.

TREMBATH: I live about 500 feet from the shoreline. Today, it’s perfectly calm. It's absolutely beautiful. It matches any Caribbean place I've ever been to. Tomorrow, Lake Erie can kick up in a minute. It's of the shallowest of the Great Lakes, so it can kick up to an amazing storm.

Sharen loves looking out at the lake in any weather and she enjoys seeing it change. But now, there’s another change she doesn’t like seeing.

TREMBATH: One thing that’s really aggravating: we can see the turbines over in Canada. Lake Erie, where I live, there's a 20 mile span from Sturgeon Point to Point Abino. And when we look out at night, we can see the red blinking lights and it looks like Christmas lights. And every year there’s more and more and more. I don’t find them pretty or majestic at all; I find them ugly and industrial.

SHEA: Those turbines are on the Canadian shoreline. But Sharen’s fighting to keep them out of the lake. She’s part of a group called Citizen’s Against Wind Turbines in Lake Erie.

She says a company called Diamond Offshore Wind approached her town’s government 3 years ago. It wanted to build 50 turbines in the lake. Nothing’s been officially proposed yet – but Sharen’s group is trying to get ahead of it by stirring up opposition.

TREMBATH: Thank heavens for Facebook. Because right now we have close to 5,000 members. In the past month we’ve had I think 54,000 people look at our website. Our focus is educating the public – that this is their lake. And we’re asking people to call and write their elected officials and let them know how they feel. Whatever your passion is, you tell your elected official why you, in your words, don’t want them in the lake.

SHEA: There are plenty of reasons people don’t want these turbines, but the way they look is a big one. And some say the visual impacts are more than just aesthetics.

JOHN LIPAJ: Lake Erie tourism creates about 150,000 jobs.

SHEA: John Lipaj is on the board of the Lake Erie Foundation. It’s an environmental non-profit that fights harmful algal blooms, microplastics and now, the Icebreaker Wind Project.

LIPAJ: One of our concerns is that you have people who come to Lake Erie for their vacations. And if you start planting wind turbines offshore, ruining those views, how is that going to affect those actual jobs?

SHEA: A study from North Carolina State University asked that same question. Researchers surveyed tourists at popular beaches about how wind turbines in the water would affect their experience.

Eighty percent of respondents said they either wouldn’t come back to the same spot for vacation, or, they’d expect an unrealistic price drop to make it worth their while.

Lipaj says the same could be true for Ohio.

LIPAJ: Sandusky and the Lake Erie Islands, Cedar point – all those places along the lake are dependent upon Lake Erie for tourists. So that was a pretty telling study for us, in terms of vacationer’s attitudes.

SHEA: Now, the Icebreaker Wind Project has been approved. But the Lake Erie Foundation is still trying a longshot legal effort to stop it. They’ve joined forces with two bird conservation groups…and filed a federal lawsuit against the government agencies that approved the project. But there’s no guarantee they’ll get a hearing.

And that brings us to birds. Some people are worried the turbines could kill migratory birds flying over Lake Erie.

But the National Audubon Society has actually voiced its support for the Icebreaker Project. It says almost 400 species of North American birds are threatened by a warming climate, and that wind energy could help limit that warming.

Not everyone who loves the Great Lakes wants to keep them turbine-free. Like Sharen Trembath and John Lipaj, Jade Davis has spent most of his life near Lake Erie.

Jade Davis hopes his hometown of Cleveland, OH, will be a hub for innovation and wind energy. Credit: Erik Drost / Wikimedia Commons
Jade Davis hopes his hometown of Cleveland, OH, will be a hub for innovation and wind energy. Credit: Erik Drost / Wikimedia Commons

JADE DAVIS: So I was born and raised in Cleveland Ohio, actually. So, I definitely understand that, you know, aesthetics and the relationship people have with the Great Lakes are real things to take into context. I think everyone involved understands that.

SHEA: Jade is one of those involved. He’s with the Port of Cleveland – a government agency overseeing the Icebreaker Project.

DAVIS: This project was designed to mitigate those aesthetic issues from the jump with the placement of the turbines and things like that. You’ll need a clear day and have to actually be looking directly, or be in a building really really high up in Cleveland to even see the tops of them, the tips of them in the faint distance. I mean you’re talking eight miles, and so it’s not going to be like riding down the street and it’s just going to be a bunch of turbines there.

SHEA: The six turbines will be able to generate a little over 20 megawatts of power during peak production. To put that into context, the Cleveland Public Power system is about 300 megawatts. So these initial turbines won’t provide a huge portion of the city’s electricity, but Jade says it’s a test run.

JADE: People say how come you’re only doing six? How come you’re not doing 60 or 600? Well, let’s make sure we can do this right. Let’s make sure we can do this safely environmentally, and create real sustainable, renewable power now, at this level. Then we can go back and look at, ‘all right, is this right for the Great Lakes? Is this right for certain portions of the Great Lakes and not other portions? Where? How?’ All these kinds of things, that's what Icebreaker Wind Project will solve for.

SHEA: Jade says this project has been a long time coming. It was first discussed in the early 2000s, then officially proposed about ten years ago. But it faced legal opposition, especially from lakeshore residents and boaters. It wasn’t until August of this year that the Ohio Supreme Court finally gave the project the official go-ahead.

JADE DAVIS: I personally am just excited to see the real push towards innovation. And then also the opportunity to create a hub here in northeast Ohio for onshore and offshore wind and technologies. We have the people, we have the logistics. And so why not here?

SHEA: Icebreaker gets its name from the project’s design – the turbines will actually feature a mechanical cone that breaks up ice as it forms around the structure. But the name has a double meaning. This is a pilot project, so it’s breaking the ice for offshore wind in the Great Lakes. And there’s a lot of interest already.

Right now, a bill in Illinois will set up a council to study offshore wind potential near Chicago. And a study like that is already underway in New York for Lakes Erie and Ontario.

That kind of study happened in Michigan more than a decade ago. But there’s still no offshore wind turbines anywhere along Michigan’s 3,000 miles of lakefront.

Skip Pruss is the former head of Michigan’s energy department – and he chaired the state’s Great Lakes Offshore Wind Council.
I asked Skip if he expected to see some turbines in Michigan waters by now.

PRUSS: By now? Um, yes probably. But we got a proposal that really…was sort of like a atom bomb.

SHEA: In 2010, a company called Scandia Wind proposed a huge project off the shore of Western Michigan. It received a lot of public backlash, and never came to fruition.

PRUSS: Because it really catalyzed interest and opposition to offshore wind from people who live on Lake Michigan. And with respect to lakefront property, you know, some of the most valuable property in the world – people who own it who have money, they have influence, they can retain lawyers and consultants to fight offshore wind and they will do it.

SHEA: And if this is getting repetitive – wind farm proposed, public outcry – Skip says that’s pretty much been the story so far.

PRUSS: The barriers are not economic, they’re not technical – they’re social and political. The biggest environmental and social and political challenge that the world faces – that all of us face – is climate change. And so we have to accelerate this clean energy transition and community opposition is a huge, huge impediment.

SHEA: He says there’s one thing that might change that, and it’s simple: it’s time.
And he gave an interesting example of how that can happen.

PRUSS: The most ubiquitous technology that is everywhere, everywhere, everywhere you go– are wires and poles. Historically, there was opposition from farmers to rural electrification. Even though it provided such an incredible life changing benefit to them, they did not want those poles or wires on their properties.

SHEA: But Skip says over time, that opposition fizzled out.

PRUSS: You know they are everywhere, but you don’t see them anymore. And, you know, is that happening with wind farms?SHEA: It’s true – poles and wires are everywhere now, and I don’t usually think about them. But maybe it’s different when you’re talking about the Great Lakes.

Offshore wind could produce a lot of electricity and lower carbon emissions. But the tricky thing is balancing that against the value of an unimpeded view. What’s it worth to look out at the horizon and see nothing but sky and water?

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Patrick Shea was a natural resources reporter at Interlochen Public Radio. Before joining IPR, he worked a variety of jobs in conservation, forestry, prescribed fire and trail work. He earned a degree in natural resources from Northland College in Ashland, Wisconsin, and his interest in reporting grew as he studied environmental journalism at the University of Montana's graduate school.